Wednesday, December 05, 2007

Integration of technology in teaching and learning

Integrating technology into the classroom environment presupposes many elements. First, that those who operate the technology have been trained, that the technology is present and functional and that the technology is appropriate for the teacher, the students and the course or curriculum (Cafolla and Knee, 1995). However each of these elements is addressed, it is still more important to determine that “technology in education [is] a fundamental part of the teaching, learning, assessment, evaluation, and productivity process” (Hoadley, Engelking and Bright, 1995, p. 410). Even with this pedagogical perspective, Cafolla and Knee mentioned that “the effects of leadership, particularly modeling” (Cafolla and Knee, 1995, p. 556) are one of the primary impediments or obstacles to successful technology integration in an educational setting.

The technology available, whether for classroom use or online use, changes teaching and learning (Grementieri, 1998). The change in teaching and learning may impact integration and this may be influenced by training (Cafolla and Knee, 1995; Grementieri, 1998). A successful training program supported by leadership provides the institutional support necessary for the potential of integration (Berger, 2005). As an advocate both for technology and of technology, leaders can create the environment where end users feel safe in using technology and encouraged to integrate technology in the classroom (Cafolla and Knee, 1995).

Training and advocacy are both elements of social change (Frank, Zhao and Borman, 2004). Through training, individuals are empowered with knowledge and skills. Advocates both recognize and respond to the need for training. Advocates become the primary agents for social change (Cafolla and Knee, 1995; Frank, Zhao and Borman, 2004).

Berger, J. (2005). Perceived consequences of adopting the internet into adult literacy and basic education classrooms. Adult Basic Education 15(2), 103-121.

Cafolla, R., & Knee, R. (1995). Factors limiting technology integration in education: The leadership gap. In D. Willis (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, San Antonio, Texas, March 22-25, 1995 (556-560). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED381148).

Frank, K., Zhao, Y., & Borman, K. (2004). Social capital and the diffusion of innovations within organizations: The case of computer technology in schools. Sociology of Education 77(2), 148-171.

Grementieri, V. (1998). Innovation technology and higher education. Higher Education in Europe 23(2), 169-175.

Hoadley, M., Engelking, J., & Bright, L. (1995). A model for technology infusion in higher education. In D. Willis (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, San Antonio, Texas, March 22-25, 1995 (410-413). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED381148).

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